I don’t think so. There is a Java UART API for Android Things but that
shouldn’t be present on a phone build.
A common approach would be to write an NDK library to talk to the UART
and then make some system level changes to “break” the security settings
to allow the app to talk to the device node. This can be as simple as
chmod 666 /dev/ttyXXXY (and maybe tweaking or disabling SELinux)
although more sophisticated approaches are possible.