I had a similar experience.
I mounted the SD card which I re-sized on the regular Linux PC,
and then edit the /etc/fstab as bellow on the second partition on SD
with the label "rootfs".
/dev/disk/by-label/rootfs / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
/dev/disk/by-label/boot /boot/efi vfat defaults 0 0
It seems like the kernel with fail to parse the GPT after expanding the size of rootfs on SD.
Please let me know if it works for you or not.