Well checking if its damaged, comes down to this; if there is data on the wire and it doesn’t read it, its damaged. Also, if it attempts to write data to the wire, and it doesn’t end up there, it is damaged. That is why you might need a logic probe – to see if the bus is behaving correctly, and to check if it is still behaving correctly on the other side of the logic shifter.
Any of the pins to which you hooked up 5V could be damaged. I can’t give you any indication about how deeply it could be damaged (or even if it has been, did you try reversing the data pins yet?). This may depend on how much current it supplied, how long the 5V was connected to it, how the SoC is constructed, etc.
The easiest way to test it would be to see if it works on a different board. If one board works, and the other doesn’t, then you have something wrong with the one that isn’t working.